Objectual Philosophy

8.9 Information processing

The fact that there is a strict dependence between the structure (syntactic value) of an ISS and its semantic value, it means that any alteration (modification, variation) of this structure shall lead to the alteration of the contained semantic information. This alteration of the structure of an ISS may be either natural (such as the physical-chemical damage of the ancient writings, oblivion of some details from our past life), or “intentional”, in case of the operations carried out on the internal ISS by the information processing unit. Now, let us briefly find out what are these modifications of the ISS internal structure, according to the notorious case of AIPS.

For AIPS class, these changes on the syntactic value of internal ISS, performed on an ISS element (bit) or group of elements (word) are named operations. An operation is a process (because we are dealing with a property variation of an object) in which there are one or more initial objects (the elements or the words which are not modified yet), which shall be named operands, the modification rule of the operands structure which shall be named operator, and the element or the modified word, called result of the operation. We notice that the alteration type of the syntactic value (operation type) which is required to an operand type is given by the operator type, therefore, each distinct operation would be related to a specific operator, which is included in the instruction list of the processor, provided by its manufacturer. The operations included in this list are elementary operations68 (non-decomposable, also known as instructions), which however are able to form series, (sequences) no matter how long but yet finite, known as programs, which are also made-up from sequences with an invariant composition of operations, named algorithms. Even if it is probably not necessary, however, due to safety reasons, we are underlining once again: the operands, operators and the result are internal ISS of AIPS.

The operand meant to a certain operation and the operation’s result are specified (distinguished, separated) by the amount of the other internal ISS by means of the internal spatial position (location) of them against the internal reference system of IPS, also defined by construction (the registers addresses, first address of the matrix structure memory etc.). Therefore, the spatial position of a distinct ISS is an internal qualitative attribute which can be distinguished by the processor.

If you remember what I have mentioned in chapter 3 about the reference systems of the compound objects, you have already observed the existence of a hierarchy of these reference systems, which is also valid for the ISS objects inside AIPS. There are elementary ISS (bits) with spatial domains and defined positions within the word (against the word’s internal reference), and then, there is a spatial reference against which the position (address) of the word in a certain block may be assessed, followed by the block reference, all of them being assessed against the main reference (internal reference of IPS). The specification of a certain operand means, besides the operand’s syntactic value, also the specification of its spatial location (address); in this case, we are dealing with a first example of association between two properties of a single object, the address becoming the second property (besides the syntactic value) of the word.

The association operation of this new property is therefore a simple joining (generation of a new object by means of external composition, as we have seen in chapter 3) of the two ISS69- the one which contains the syntactic value and the one which hosts the address (a syntactic value as well) of that value into the internal spatial domain of IPS. This new object made-up from the permanent composition (association) of two ISS with simultaneous existence shall be completely determined (distinguishable) in the entire set of the internal ISS from IPS because its memory location is an unique specific attribute.

After we clarified what is an operand, let us see what kind of operators may be found at AIPS, by mentioning that we are making only a review of the most common ones usual within some generations of processors, regardless of their manufacturer:

The transfer operators do not alter the value of the operand but only the value of its location, likewise the replication and logical operators. The replacement operators do not alter the location.

Among the above-mentioned operators, the most important ones (from the point of view of the objectual philosophy) are the transfer and comparison ones, the latter being included both in the category of logical and arithmetical operators. The logical (qualitative) comparison implies the analysis of ISS structure of the two operands and to distinguish the difference between these structures, and the result can only have two values: equal (in case of the identical structures) or different (non-equal). The arithmetic (quantitative) comparison is applied to the quantitative values of the two operands (a difference as well), out of which, one is considered as a reference, and depending on the sign and value of this difference, we shall have three possible results: less (negative sign), major (positive sign) or equal (the difference value is under the perception threshold of IPS, regardless its sign, and considered to be zero, namely, the non-existent difference).

After this brief foray into the field of the common information processing operations characteristic to AIPS, let us see what we know about the operations carried out by NIPS, mainly by the human one. If we consider the above-mentioned list of AIPS operations as a reference, we may certainly assert that in case of the neuronal IPS, there are appropriate ISS transfers (fluxes), but, for the time being, we do not know precisely if they are commanded (just like in AIPS case) or they have a natural existence, as any other vital flux. The fact that our brain is able to access at a certain moment a massive amount of information when making an evocation, this may confirm us that it is also likely to exist a commanded transfer. Another fact which is also certain is that there is no explicit erasure operation within the neuronal IPS, the cancellation of unnecessary information is inherently made, by omitting to make a refresh (mostly in case of the short-term memory). On this occasion, we have also defined an operation performed within the neuronal NIPS - that is the refreshment - which, in case of AIPS, is equivalent with the refresh made within the dynamic memories, operation which is similar with the replication and replacement achieved at the same location. In fact, the replication at NIPS is extensively present, starting with DNA replication within the cell division and continuing with the information replication from DNA segments within the transcript of the genetic information into RNA sequences.

As for the quantitative operations, we may only say that they are absolutely necessary for the evaluation of the intensity of the fluxes which are carriers of external information, that the result of this evaluation must be proportional to the input values, and that the generated amount must determine the amplitude of the IPS response, and of the host bio-system to that final information. For all of these, there must be support for at least three operations: logarithmation, addition and subtraction. The logarithmation (which was experimentally found in some input units) is necessary for covering a very wide intensity range of the incident fluxes, with a much more reduced range of syntactic values. The addition and subtraction are required in order to achieve other information processing operations, out of which, one is of the greatest interest for us - that is the comparison. So as this operation could not miss within AIPS, it does not miss either at NIPS because the comparison is a fundamental information processing operation, which may be found at any type of IPS.

Comment 8.9.1: For those who know something about the automatic control systems, it is well known that a mandatory operational block within the universal model of these systems is the comparison block, which is a block meant to compare the input information (command) with the output information (reaction proportional to the adjusted amount), the result (difference) being applied at the input of the regulator. Since most of the elements belonging to the vegetative system (neuronal as well) are extremely complex control systems, it is self-understood that the comparison operation must be mandatorily implemented into the neuronal IPS. The existence of two neuro-mediators classes - exciters and inhibitors - is considered as a proof for the existence of the two operations - addition and subtraction - of the intensity of fluxes transmitted through the synapses.

As we have seen in case of AIPS, where we have analyse in detail the comparison operation, its essence consists in the simultaneous existence of the two operands at the moment when the operation is in progress, out of which, one is considered as a reference and it is previously stored into IPS memory. However, we have noticed in chapter 3 that a reference must be an invariant object during its entire existence as a reference. Consequently, we shall have:

AXIOM V (memory’s axiom): For making possible the comparison between an information received in the present with an information received in the past, the previous information stored into IPS memory must be invariant (the internal structure, syntactic value of ISS must be invariant).

Comment 8.9.2: The fact that a memory is able to store non-alterable information only with condition that the support of this information (ISS) to be also non-alterable throughout time, has a major impact on the analysis method of the cognition processes, stated by the objectual philosophy. The first consequence of this axiom is that only the objects may be stored into a memory (ISS with an invariant structure after storage) but not processes as well. We are reminding that an object is an invariant collection of invariant attributes, distributed on a common, as well as on an invariant support. An indirect method is being used for the processes storage, that is the storage of a series of sample objects (which are invariant once they were stored), which were sampled at successive time intervals and which contain the value of the variable attribute existing at the moment of sampling (objects which were minutely described in chapter 4 and which are called states). These samples are stored in successive and adjacent spatial locations, so that a temporal difference ∆t would be related to a difference of spatial position (location) ∆r. Therefore, the processes shall be stored into the short-term memory of an IPS as a system of objects (a series of invariant successive-adjacent elements)70. Even the fact that people have selected the notion of state for describing an evolution of the attributes of specific objects may be explained by the fact that our brain is not able to operate directly with processes. Another consequence of this axiom is that any ISS, either it is internal or external to an IPS, and regardless if IPS is artificial or natural (biotic), it must be a S-type MS (from the point of view of the detectable attribute by IPS) during the period of the information storage. Because any information found inside IPS may be used sometimes as a reference from a comparison operation, it results that all ISS which are carriers of internal information (written, recorded) must be invariant during the existence of that particular information. A last but not least significant consequence is even the fact that information (mostly quantitative determination) means invariance, the greater is the invariance degree, the greater is the information amount (accuracy) and vice-versa. If you, my dear reader, were patient enough to read up to this section, you will better understand the definition 8.3.5 which was used for describing the information concept.

So far, we have used notions such as simultaneous, previous, present etc. with the meaning known by each of us from the school or from our own experience. These words are common because each of them is related to specific values of a special attribute - that is the temporal attribute (the time).

AXIOM VI (time’s axiom): The time is an attribute totally independent from any other attribute, which is continuous and evenly variable, exclusively used by MS from IPS class, and by means of association of its quantitative value to the perceived objects, these systems (IPS) are able to achieve their fundamental tasks:

a) validation of the multiple and simultaneous existence of the objects;

b) evaluation of the attributes variations (processes), by comparing the present information with a previous information stored into memory;

c) short-term anticipation on the evolution of a process.

Comment 8.9.3: The perception of the direct reality (which shall be subsequently defined) by an IPS (for instance, a human one) is made through the channels of sensorial information. The total amount of the external objects whose efferent fluxes are captured by the sensory channels, in parallel and at the same time, are considered to have a simultaneous existence. Therefore, the simultaneous existence of the objects requires an unique moment for all these objects, even if those particular objects have an infinite number (absolute reality in case of an IPS with infinite performance). The perception of a property variation of an object from the real world (such as the spatial position) is made by comparing that property which was perceived at a present moment with the property of the same object perceived and stored at a previous moment. The difference between the two values will be even the attribute change characteristic to a motion process of the object. It is clear that, in order to unfold all these operations, IPS must be equipped with an unique clock and the information generated by this clock at a specific moment to be associated with all ISS which represent external objects with a simultaneous existence. Under the assumption that there are more IPS which communicate one another and are able to perceive more, but the same objects with a simultaneous existence, the individual simultaneity of the existence of these objects becomes a collective simultaneity. For the synchronization of the collective perceptions felt by a group of individuals, an external unique clock is required - that is the collective temporal reference. Nowadays, the mankind has such an unique clock (which defines the universal time) which synchronizes the external time of each member of the community, used for the description of any kind of process, but it is valid only for humans and for the artificial IPS created by them. The other bio-systems which do not communicate with people keep their own clock, and the abiotic systems simply do not care about the universal time which some people think it is real. The alleged reality of the time comes from the uncontrolled nouning of the properties of objects or processes, through which the properties are separated by the support material object, by granting them afterwards an independent existence, as if these properties would be able to exist without the support on which they are distributed. Obviously, there are a lot of periodical processes deployed into the external material world, but their counting (which provides the result of the quantitative value of the temporal attribute) is an information processing operation, which is non-accessible to the abiotic MS, as any form of information.

The temporal attribute indicated in the axiom VI is the virtual time (mathematic, ideal), with support values taken from the set of the real numbers {R}. The independence of this qualitative attribute is an abstract independence (by convention, by definition etc.), under the meaning settled when defining the independent attribute, therefore, it is assumed that there is no process whose variations to be able to determine variations of the time running rate. However, the realizable time (as it was mentioned at the beginning of this chapter), is a counting of a very stable, real periodical process, the numerical value stored in this counter (increased by an unit at each completion of the cyclic process) being considered as an existential attribute of the time (of the present moment).

Comment 8.9.4: The stability of the repetitive process counted in case of the realizable time derives from its isolation degree; the better confined are the variable fluxes which make-up the repetitive process and consequently, non-influenced by the external processes, the more constant will be the frequency of that particular process. Because the total isolation cannot be achieved, because both the process elements and the isolation elements belong to the same medium - PFM (ether) - no absolute stability is possible either. Moreover, any variation of the motion of this ensemble through PFM shall induce variations into the flux stockpiles and therefore, into the process frequency. In other words, the realizable time cannot be absolutely independent, as it is required by the virtual time definition.

As for AIPS, the counter of the periodical process (oscillation of a quartz crystal) is well-known and it may be found at any kind of systems like this (the processor’s tact generator and the so-called real time clock), all the elementary operations of the processors being performed at regular intervals generated by this internal clock.

The location of this internal clock is still unknown in case of NIPS (which is probably placed at intracellular level) but its existence cannot be questioned because for the bio-systems as well, time is an essential attribute for the same basic functions: the perception of the multiple objects with a simultaneous existence, perception of the processes and short-term prediction of the evolution of these processes.

The “present” moment of a neuronal biotic IPS can be considered as the moment of the last variation perceived by an attribute. We are talking about any variation, of any perceptible flux from the panoply of n types of fluxes with a simultaneous perception (for humans, it may be the last sound, the last seen or felt move, even we are referring to our own heart beats or to the breathing motions. This is also the moment of the last (from the already existing series) sensorial ISS from the perception domain of that particular variation. The perception is simultaneous (synchronic) for all the elementary information channels of the neuronal NIPS. The very advanced parallelism of the elementary information channels has the purpose even to detect and distinguish by means of contrast attributes, the multiple existence of the objects from the external or internal world, and the synchronic operation of all these channels allow the validation of their simultaneous existence. The separation capacity between the multiple objects (resolution) is direct proportional to the number of the elementary information channels (see also annex X.14).

All the different objects, separated between them through boundary contrast attributes, perceived at the present moment, have associated ISS, produced at the same moment, and they will have the same position into the global register (the simultaneous fluxes of internal ISS of all the elementary information channels). The total amount of these ISS generated at the present moment shall make-up the internal representation of the present (direct) external reality from that moment. A process which is perceived to be unfolded within the present interval71is a real process. The processes which took place before this moment, were completed and they are stored into IPS memory as series of states, are abstract processes (the abstract processes shall be approached in the following chapter).

The information processing carried out during a real process and moreover, the invariance assumption of the attributes of this process (direction, speed etc.), in the absence of no disturbing factors, provides the elements of another fundamental operation for IPS class - prediction of the process’ future evolution. As for the biotic IPS, this prediction is vital in order to avoid processes which may lead to the destruction of the host bio-system, the prediction capacity being even a trace of the evolution level of the species to which the bio-system belongs to.

We cannot end this short foray into the information processing field without mentioning an operation considered by the objectual philosophy as a constitutive part to all the biotic IPS (including the intracellular level) because it comes from the general information organization manner into the DNA molecule. In this paper, that particular operation (which is not an elementary operation, as for NIPS its constitutive elements are still unknown) is named objectual (systemic) analysis and consists in the extraction of the common and specific components of the set of perceived objects. If an identical common component already exists in the long-term memory, the information is only refreshed and it is associated only with the new perceived values (specific components). If the specific components also exist, they will be refreshed as well. If there are no more common components, both classes of components belonging to the perceived objects shall be stored. In this way, an information hierarchy occurs into the biotic IPS memory, in which all the perceptions are organized on classes of objects, with their common components stored one time, and with the specific components which are individually stored. This is an organization technique known by the IT experts as a method of information compression, which is required for a more efficient utilization of a finite resource - IPS memory.

68 These operations are elementary only for the programmers (processor’s users), but inside the processor, they are still decomposable in the so-called micro-operations.

69 Similarly with the association of one person’s name with his/her address from a locality, or with the association of the date and place of birth, all of these with a sole purpose to clearly identify (separate) that particular person from a set of persons.

70 This process of successive storage of some series of objects with variable attributes (successive as well) is mainly specific to the short-term memory (STM) in case of the biotic IPS, until the short-term prediction on the evolution of the on-going processes and the systemic review of the recently acquired information would take place. This kind of process may be also found at AIPS which are designed for the processing of the continuous signals received from the outside, where the sampling and memorization is the only storage method of these variable signals.

71 A temporal interval is considered to be present if it is the last from a series of periodical intervals and contains inside it the present moment. These intervals have a length (duration) settled by association with the periodical observable astronomic processes (years, month, days etc.), processes which, for many centuries, were the only time measuring units.

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