The total amount of the qualitative and quantitative, semantic and syntactic information, associated to a material information support system (ISS) represents an abstract object.
The abstract objects are therefore, information existence forms, that is a notion with which only a special type of MS is able to operate - information processing system (IPS) - whose general model has been depicted in chapter 8.
A source MS of specific material fluxes which carries a finite number of the MS’s properties, fluxes existent at the present moment of an IPS, and which are partly captured by it, represents a real object for that IPS.
The total amount of the real objects and processes at which these objects are subjected to at the same time, which have a simultaneous existence at the present moment of a certain IPS, makes-up the individual direct reality of that IPS.
If there are more IPS which perceive simultaneously the same material objects and processes, the group of real objects and processes with a simultaneous existence for IPS set represents the collective reality of IPS set.
The total information amount about the real objects and processes which have a simultaneous existence within a temporal interval which includes the present moment, information stored into the internal or external memory of an IPS set, makes-up the known reality for that IPS set.
The entire information amount about the real objects and associated processes, which is assumed to exist simultaneously into the infinite space, makes-up the absolute reality. The absolute reality is a virtual abstract object (because it contains an infinite information amount), but which represents the basis of a dichotomous classification into other two abstract objects: known reality and unknown reality for a specific IPS set.
The information associated to an internal ISS of an IPS, as a result of the perception of a real object (ISS stored into IPS memory at the present moment), represents a concrete abstract object (synonym - sensorial), and that ISS is considered as the internal representation of the external object.
The information contained in a concrete abstract object consists of two components:
The information which is common to other concrete abstract objects found into IPS memory;
The information which is specific to that particular abstract object, information which allows the object to be differentiated as compared to the rest of abstract objects from the memory.
The total information amount which is common to a set M of abstract objects represents the model of another abstract object - class of abstract objects M - object which does not represent any longer any external real object, being only a finite amount of semantic information associated to an internal ISS. The set M represents the support of that particular class. As a result of the association of a specific attribute to the class model, that abstract object becomes an instance (a particular object) of that class.
The information processing operation characterized by the extraction of the common component out of many information blocks is named abstraction. The first abstraction level, the unit fundamental level, is represented by the concrete abstract objects. These abstract objects represent (into IPS memory) a single real perceived object. The second abstraction level (notion) extracts the common component of a set of concrete abstract objects. The upper abstraction levels represent the common component of a set of notions.
As it was mentioned in chapter 8, a distribution of the semantic values on the set of syntactic values of an ISS class is named language. If that ISS class is external to an IPS, we are dealing with an external language. In case of this language, the semantic information which is associated to the syntactic values of the external ISS consists in huge amounts of semantic information associated by some internal ISS of a specific IPS, and which can be found inside its memory. The external ISS whose syntactic values represent outside IPS the information contained in its memory, are considered as external representations of the internal information.
In case of the natural human language, the external ISS are sequences of elementary sounds (phonemes) or graphical symbols (characters), sequences which are called words. The structural information of these ISS represents the syntactic value of the words, and the information from the IPS memory associated to these syntactic values represents the semantic value of those words. The external syntactic value (the word) which is associated within the natural language to a specific internal semantic value is the name.
If there are external ISS fluxes between two or more IPS, and those IPS know the same language type, we may say that a communication process takes place. The information flux transmitted within the communication process through the natural language is made-up from three classes of abstract objects: object_name (the nouns and their substitutes, with all their flectional forms), process_name (the verbs with all their flectional forms) and the determinants (adjectives, numerals, articles, conjunctions, prepositions etc. also with their flectional forms). The total amount of the rules which regulates the flectional forms of the words depending on the associated semantic information makes-up the language syntax.
Due to the fact that the semantic information existent inside the memory of some communicating IPS is not the same, the communication process is able to effectively transmit only the common component of the information domains which exist into the communicator memory.
One of the abstract objects with a high level of abstraction is the system, notion which represents a complex (compound) abstract object with invariant interdependence relations of their properties, both between its elements and between each element and the internal reference of the complex object.
If every material system is a form of matter existence, with all these forms (material objects) having a similar generic model (the triad of fluxes model), we may assert that each abstract system is a form of the information existence. If the entire amount of MS and processes in which they are involved makes-up the real world, which is unique and independent from any IPS, the entire amount of abstract systems makes-up the abstract world, which is valid only for the IPS class, and which has sizes depending on their performance level. According to the criterion of the contained information amount, the abstract world is divided into the world of abstract achievable (realizable) objects (with associated finite information which can be included into an ISS with finite sizes) and the world of virtual abstract objects (with a related infinite information amount which requires an ISS with an infinite dimension).
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