In the beginning, it must be clearly settled that the bio-systems also belong to the class of the material systems, the abiotic material systems making-up the abiotic support of all the bio-systems, regardless of their complexity. Consequently, the model attributes of the abiotic MS shall be present (inherited) at bio-systems as well, but there will also be extra attributes which are specific only to the bio-systems class. Similarly with the abiotic MS, there will also be a reference medium (RM), the medium with an existence previous to any bio-system and whose elements were the basis for the formation of the first and the most simple biosystems. This medium must own some compulsory qualities:
RM’s elements must be the generating set for any system which will be comprised in the composition of all the bio-systems. Since the internal organization of the elements of known bio-systems starts from the atomic and molecular level, the media which are made-up from these elements are the natural media (NM, whose elements are those about 90 types of stable atoms which can be found in the peripheral media of the Earth1);
RM must allow the quasi-free rotation of the atoms and molecules, that is a basic condition for the stereo-chemical synthesis. This condition excludes the S-type RM (solids) which does not allow the elements rotation;
RM must allow the existence of the internal mobile bounding surfaces (cavities). This condition can be accomplished by a single type of NM - LA media (liquids);
RM must contain in a relative small volume (in a sufficient concentration) all the chemical elements and their abiotic compounds which are necessary to the bio-system synthesis (to be, among others, a good solvent for the compounds of these elements);
RM must be polar, which means to allow the appearance, the existence and motion of ions;
As compared to RM, the chemical compounds which may be found in this medium must be divided in two classes, the medio-philes ones with attraction forces to the medium, and medio-phobics with repulsion forces against the medium. This last condition is absolutely necessary for the synthesis of the bi-layer plasmatic membrane which makes-up the RBS of the living cells, and the cell is, as we are going to see later on, the basic biotic system, the existence of all the bio-systems depending on this condition.
Based on the above-mentioned conditions, an almost unique medium is going to result, which can be found in large quantities on Earth - that is water - as a support medium in which (as solutions, emulsions, suspensions etc.) all the abiotic elements which are necessary for the bio-system’s structure are spread. This medium was also preserved as an internal medium in an amount of over 70% at the advanced biosystems which currently exist, even if most of them were diffused from the primordial medium into other media (atmosphere, soil and the interstitions from the earth crust). The water is absolutely needed for all the biosystems, mostly in the areas where the chemical synthesis is deployed - the cell cytoplasm - or as a carrier medium for the internal fluxes.
As compared to this reference medium from which the bio-system collects the elements of its structural abiotic support2, the bio-system must be supplied with energy in order to support its internal fluxes - vital fluxes. Just as in case of the abiotic MS, this energy must be obtained from the outside by means of the supply fluxes, which are immergent fluxes running through the biosystem’s RBS (most of them are coming through the RBS’s specialized gates). The supply fluxes must bring inside the biosystem both the energy required for the maintenance of the internally stored fluxes (vital fluxes) and the support biotic or abiotic material, which is required either for maintaining the proper integrity, or for the future biosystem which shall be synthesized within the reproduction process. In other words, the biosystem’s input fluxes must contain both the structural and the energetic component.
The internal chemical reactions which are the basis for the formation and existence of the bio-system, generate both useful and non-useful compounds, or even noxious ones, compounds which must be eliminated to the outside. These compounds, together with their carrier media (water or air), shall make-up most of the structural fluxes emerging from the bio-system, besides the unavoidable energy loss fluxes by means of the emergent fluxes consisting of thermal photons.
The flux triad model - immergent, stored, emergent - which was observed for the first time at bio-systems, but which is considered as an universal model for MS in the paper herein, is obviously valid for the bio-systems as well, but on another organization level against the support abiotic systems.
Due to its importance, we let at last the specification that, besides the above-mentioned fluxes, there are also information fluxes included in the fluxes which make-up that particular triad. The significance of these fluxes is also underlined by the fact that the triad of the information fluxes makes-up a special material system: information processing system (IPS). This MS-type is specific to the biosystems and only in the last century, its imitation has become possible by means of the artificial IPS.
Therefore, the biosystems are a MS class with the following specific attributes (besides those of the abiotic MS):
The existence of the fluxes triad (3F) against the abiotic reference medium: the supply (immergent) fluxes, the vital (stored) fluxes and the output (emergent) fluxes;
The necessity of this kind of fluxes determines the need for an additional energy supply (against the abiotic level);
The existence of the self-reproduction process;
The existence of a specialized MS - information processing system (IPS) - which operates with another class of specialized MS which are the information support systems (ISS), that is a system which controls all the internal processes of the biosystem, from the RBS permeability to fluxes, up to the self-reproduction and external behaviour processes. This system is also organized on hierarchical levels, depending on the biosystem’s complexity.
1 But the atoms with instable nuclides must not be neglected either (the radioactive isotopes of the stable atoms), especially if they have a span life comparable or longer than the bio-systems’ one.
2 We are talking about bio-systems placed at the lowest trophic level, which are those inferior organisms whose input fluxes are exclusively abiotic. The structural input fluxes of the superior organisms have components already produced in other bio-systems, by using them as food.
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